Azizah al-Hibri, Esq.
Dr. Azizah al-Hibri, Esq. is a professor of law at the T. C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond. She is the founding editor of Hypatia: a Journal of Feminist Philosophy, and founder of Karamah. A Fulbright Scholar, Professor al-Hibri has written extensively on issues of Islam and democracy, Muslim women's rights, and human rights in Islam...
The Charter of Madinah and Religious Freedom
The Madinah Charter was executed by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on the one hand, and the various Muslim and Jewish tribes on the other. He had immigrated to Madinah, upon the invitation of its community, because his life was being threatened in Makkah due to his religious beliefs. The Madinah community liked the Prophet's message and wanted to give it a home in its own city. So the Prophet experienced firsthand religious oppression and knew very well the importance of religious liberty.